03/26/2012

Droits fondamentaux: la théorie

kaart.pngComité directeur sur les médias 
et la société de l'information 
(CDMSI)

1re réunion – 27-30 mars 2012 (Strasbourg, Agora, salle G03) 
CDMSI(2012)002 

Projet de déclaration du Comité des Ministres sur les risques du suivi numérique 
et des autres technologies de surveillance pour les droits fondamentaux

1. Les Etats membres du Conseil de l'Europe reconnaissent à toute personne relevant de leur juridiction les droits et libertés définis dans la Convention de sauvegarde des droits de l'homme et des libertés fondamentales (STE n° 5, ci-après dénommée « la Convention »). Au vu de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme, les obligations qui leur incombent peuvent être négatives, c’est-à-dire s'abstenir de toute ingérence, ou positives, impliquant, entre autres, de protéger les individus contre les actes de personnes privées qui pourraient porter atteinte à leur jouissance de ces droits1.

2. Le droit au respect de la vie privée énoncé à l'article 8 de la Convention est crucial pour protéger les personnes contre les abus de pouvoir ou d’autorité et leur permettre de participer aux processus de gouvernance. Les restrictions de ce droit ne peuvent se justifier que si elles sont nécessaires dans une société démocratique, conformes à la loi et si elles poursuivent l'un des objectifs précis indiqués à l'article 8, paragraphe 2. Dans certains cas, la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme a jugé que la simple existence d'une loi autorisant la surveillance de citoyens pouvait affecter leur droit fondamental au respect de la vie privée2.

3. Le défaut de protection de la vie privée, et par conséquent des données à caractère personnel, peut avoir des répercussions néfastes sur l’exercice d'autres droits fondamentaux. Cela est particulièrement vrai pour les libertés d'expression, de réunion et d’association et, par conséquent, pour le droit de participer aux processus et aux débats concernant la gouvernance. A cet égard, afin de pouvoir prendre des décisions vraiment en toute liberté, les personnes doivent se sentir à l’abri de toute intrusion, surveillance ou autre forme d’ingérence dans leur vie privée.

4. De nos jours, les gens dépendent de l’utilisation d’appareils fixes ou mobiles dont l’offre ne cesse de se développer, améliorant les possibilités de communiquer, d'interagir, de participer à différents types d'activités, notamment celles qui ont trait à des questions d'intérêt général, et de gérer des aspects pratiques de la vie quotidienne.

5. Ces appareils permettent aux fournisseurs de collecter, conserver et traiter de nombreuses données à caractère personnel des utilisateurs, y compris la nature voire le contenu de leurs communications, les informations auxquelles ils ont eu accès ou les sites internet qu'ils ont consultés et, dans le cas des appareils mobiles, leur localisation et leurs déplacements. La collecte et le traitement de telles données peuvent révéler des informations délicates (comme des données financières) ou sensibles (concernant par exemple la santé, les convictions politiques ou religieuses, les pratiques sexuelles) sur les personnes concernées. Ces appareils peuvent ainsi fournir des portraits détaillés et intimes de leurs utilisateurs.

6. D’après certaines informations, certains logiciels installés sur les appareils mobiles seraient conçus ou programmés pour collecter toute une série de données à caractère personnel – y compris des données sensibles – liées à l'utilisation de ces appareils. Ces informations sont apparemment accessibles ou transmissibles à des tiers à l’insu des intéressés. Conscientes des implications sur le droit des utilisateurs au respect de la vie privée et à la protection des données à caractère personnel, les autorités d’un certain nombre d'Etats membres chargées de la protection des données ont décidé d'enquêter sur ces cas.

7. Des profils basés sur la manière dont les personnes utilisent les nouvelles technologies peuvent être créés et utilisés à différentes fins qui peuvent conduire à des décisions ayant un impact significatif sur les personnes concernées, même à leur insu, comme le souligne la Recommandation CM/Rec(2010)13 sur la protection des personnes à l’égard du traitement automatisé des données à caractère personnel dans le cadre du profilage ; cela a des répercussions évidentes sur l'autonomie des individus et la société tout entière.

8. Plus généralement, les questions liées à l'utilisation des technologies de suivi numérique constituent des enjeux importants pour l'Etat de droit, qui nécessitent de défendre efficacement les droits et libertés individuels contre les ingérences arbitraires. De même, le suivi et la géolocalisation peuvent avoir de graves conséquences sur le droit des personnes à la libre circulation. Les activités de surveillance illégale dans le cyberespace, qu'elles concernent un accès illégal, une interception de données ou une ingérence, la surveillance d'un système ou l'utilisation abusive d'appareils, peuvent avoir des implications pénales ; à cet égard, la Convention sur la cybercriminalité (STCE n° 185) est extrêmement pertinente.

9. Les pratiques décrites ci-dessus ont de lourdes conséquences sur la protection des données à caractère personnel et portent atteinte à la vie privée, garantie essentielle de la liberté et de la démocratie. La destruction de la vie privée aurait des conséquences redoutables sur la démocratie et, au final, sur la société tout entière. La Convention pour la protection des personnes à l'égard du traitement automatisé des données à caractère personnel (STCE n° 108) est pleinement applicable aux problèmes décrits plus haut. Elle fait actuellement l'objet d'une révision, qui vise pour l’essentiel à tenir compte des multiples enjeux liés à la prolifération de nouvelles technologies et garantir un haut niveau de protection des droits des personnes dans les environnements numériques.

10. Dans ce contexte, le Comité des Ministres :

- attire l’attention des Etats membres sur les risques que présente la surveillance secrète par le biais d’outils de suivi des utilisateurs pour le droit au respect de la vie privée, à la fois en tant que droit fondamental et en tant que condition préalable à l'exercice de la citoyenneté démocratique, et souligne que les Etats membres ont la responsabilité de garantir la protection adéquate des citoyens dans ce domaine ;

b. soutient pleinement les efforts réalisés par les Etats membres pour examiner la question des technologies de suivi et de surveillance, leur impact sur l'exercice et la pleine jouissance des droits et libertés fondamentaux individuels ainsi que leur incidence sur la société tout entière ;

c. estime que le Conseil de l'Europe doit poursuivre ses travaux sur ces questions, notamment sur leurs implications concernant la gouvernance de l'internet, la société de l'information et la protection des données.

X et Y c. Pays-Bas ; Young, James et Webster c. Royaume-Uni ; Plattform Ärzte für das Leben c. Autriche ; Powell et Rayner c. Royaume-Uni ; Costello-Roberts c. Royaume-Uni ; Lopez Ostra c. Espagne ; August c. Royaume-Uni ; A. c. Royaume-Uni ; Z et autres c. Royaume-Uni ; Calvelli et Ciglio c. Italie ; Osman c. Royaume-Uni ; Marcks c. Belgique ; Airey c. Irlande ; Gaskin c. Royaume-Uni ; Gül c. Suisse ; Ahmut c. Pays-Bas ; D. c. Royaume-Uni ; Guerra c. Italie ; Botta c. Italie ; L.C.B c. Royaume-Uni ; Z. et autres c. US;. et Marper c. Royaume-Uni. Note de bas de page destinée à informer le CDMSI ; à supprimer après examen et approbation éventuelle.

Klass et autres c. Allemagne ; Malone c. Royaume-Uni ; Weber et Saravia c. Allemagne ; Halford c. Royaume-Uni ; Association for European Integration and Human Rights et Ekimdzhiev c. Bulgarie, etc. Note de bas de page destinée à informer le CDMSI ; à supprimer après examen et approbation éventuelle.

http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/media/cdmsi/cdmsi(2012)002_fr.asp?toPrint=yes&

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Note: Il y a quelques semaines que le script du livre de Marcel Vervloesem, l'homme qui révélait l'affaire pédo-criminelle de Zandvoort et qui a été à nouveau incarcéré en prison, a été saisi par la justice.  La justice belge l'obligeait d'envoyer ses lettres utlisant des enveloppes ouvertes ce qui est une violation de la vie privée.

05/08/2011

Europe: Violation of human rights in Irish prisons (2)

IrishPrisonServices.jpg

IRELAND’S SHAME AS EUROPEAN TORTURE COMMITTEE PRESENTS DAMNING INDICTMENT OF IRISH PRISON SYSTEM

The fifth report on Ireland from the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Degrading Treatment (CPT), published today (Thursday, 10th Feb 2011), is the most critical yet, and a damning indictment of a prison system that is failing to meet the most basic human rights standards of safe and humane custody. The Irish Penal Reform Trust (IPRT), Ireland’s leading penal reform campaign organisation, is calling on all election candidates to take heed of this national disgrace and commit to rectifying the many human rights issues identified in the report, including slopping out, overcrowding, escalating violence, patchy provision of health care including mental health care, and above all, the failure to provide safe custody.

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Critical Issues

Among other issues, the Committee found:

Complaints: Some of the most serious concerns in the report relate to allegations of mistreatment of prisoners by staff, where the Committee points to inadequate investigation of complaints, poor recording of alleged incidents, and inadequate or no medical examination of prisoners who make complaints. (30-31; 34) Clearly there is a major deficit of oversight and accountability, and this report highlights how an independent system of investigation is needed, similar to that which now prevails for Garda custody. (102-105)
Prison health care: the CPT found inadequate provision of prison healthcare, recording that in some prisons doctors were not fulfilling contracted hours, even where these hours were already wholly inadequate. Serious concerns also expressed about prescribing methadone at Cork, Midlands, Mountjoy (74). Some particularly worrying incidents were reported in relation to inadequate treatment of a HIV positive prisoner (63); of a prisoner being chained to staff during medical treatment in the Midlands (65); and of a prisoner being forced to undergo withdrawal from heroin while subjected to slopping out in Cork (75). Overall the keeping of medical records was found to be inadequate (67), with prisoners not receiving medical examination on admission at Cork or Mountjoy (68 and 70) – this has very serious implications for investigating any allegations of mistreatment.
Risk Assessment: Across the prison system, the Committee found no basic admission or induction policy in place (except at Midlands prison) including no cell-share risk assessment procedure – which is especially worrying given serious incidents, including homicide, in shared cells in recent years.
Slopping out: the CPT rejected the State’s contention that toilet patrols operated effectively, and reported that they found prisoners were often not allowed out of cells at night and reported being subjected to verbal abuse when they asked for access to toilets (48)
Psychiatric care: the CPT found mental health care to be inadequate, particularly in Cork where there was poor record keeping, over-reliance on medication and dirty observation cells. They report on one case in Wheatfield prison, where a prisoner was held in a special observation cell for 6 weeks and worsened in condition during that time.
Protection and punishment: The report contains a shocking description of the high numbers on 23-hour lock up for protection (56), including high numbers in St. Patrick’s Institution (57). The CPT also found improper use of special observation cells for discipline (81), including an incident where a disciplinary hearing took place in a special observation cell while prisoner in underpants. It found routine use of de facto solitary confinement being imposed for up to 60 days, which is illegal under the Prisons Act.
Racism: concerns raised in the report which had not appeared in previous reports include accounts of allegations of racism against Travellers and foreign prisoners by staff and other prisoners (29, 32.)
Prison Figures:

On 25th Jan 2011, the prison population was 4,541 (Source: Irish Prison Service)
On 2nd February 2011, there were 41 boys in St Patrick’s Institution: 6 sixteen-year olds; 35 seventeen-year olds. (Source: Irish Prison Service)
On 17th Dec 2010, 1,003 men were required to slop out in Irish prisons: 515 in Mountjoy Prison; 299 prisoners in Cork prison, all in shared cells (sharing with 1-2 others); 51 in Portlaoise Prison; 99 in Limerick Prison (male). (Source: Dáil Question, 27th Jan 2011 )
On 26th January 2011, there were 250 prisoners on 23-hour or more lock-up (for reasons of protection); 26 on 22-23 hour lock-up; 164 on 20-22 hr lock-up (including 57 in St Patrick’s Institution) and 60 on 18-20 hr lock-up. (Source:Dáil Question, 27th January 2011)

http://irishcriminologyresearchnetwork.wordpress.com/2011...

Photo: Irish Prison Services

 

 

Europe: violation of human rights in Irish prisons

IrishPrisonServices.jpg

IRELAND’S SHAME AS EUROPEAN TORTURE COMMITTEE PRESENTS DAMNING INDICTMENT OF IRISH PRISON SYSTEM

The fifth report on Ireland from the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Degrading Treatment (CPT), published today (Thursday, 10th Feb 2011), is the most critical yet, and a damning indictment of a prison system that is failing to meet the most basic human rights standards of safe and humane custody. The Irish Penal Reform Trust (IPRT), Ireland’s leading penal reform campaign organisation, is calling on all election candidates to take heed of this national disgrace and commit to rectifying the many human rights issues identified in the report, including slopping out, overcrowding, escalating violence, patchy provision of health care including mental health care, and above all, the failure to provide safe custody.

During the CPT’s last visit to Ireland, which took place from 25th January to 5thFebruary 2010, the Committee also examined detention in Garda stations and psychiatric institutions. However, the bulk of the report is given over to detailing the appalling human rights issues in Ireland’s prisons. The critical issues of prison healthcare and complaints receive particularly serious censure.

Speaking on the publication of the report, Liam Herrick, Executive Director of the Irish Penal Reform Trust said:

“This report further documents a prison system in crisis, with clear failures in many important aspects of the system – including in relation to healthcare, prisoner protection and investigation of complaints against staff. Undoubtedly some of the problems identified here stem from chronic prison overcrowding and inadequate penal policies, but many of the most serious issues highlight failures at an operational level to meet the most basic standards of safe and humane custody.”

“This report shows a litany of broken commitments and inaction in relation to chronic problems over the past two decades. There has been a failure of leadership to address the problems within our prisons. The bottom line is that prisoners and the general public are left with a prison system that is unacceptable and which has exposed Ireland to international shame. The next Government must prioritise addressing the problems in our prisons, and commit to getting prisoner numbers down.”

There were 3,150 prisoners in custody when the CPT visited in October 2006; this number had reached 4,100 on the occasion of the CPT’s 2010 visit to Ireland. On 25th January 2011, prisoner numbers were 4,541. Efforts being taken by the Irish Prison Service to address the issues cannot succeed unless Government take control of the overcrowding situation, which frustrates any attempts to tackle the serious problems outlined in this report.

Individual Prisons

Cork, Mountjoy and Limerick female prisons come in for particular criticism:

Cork: the CPT found plastic bags being used as toilets (paragraph 41), unacceptable dirty segregation cells (96) and inadequate visiting facilities (99). Prisoners also reported only being able to access one shower and change of underwear each week. The State’s response to these criticisms referred to the proposed new prison at Kilworth – a plan which is now acknowledged to be suspended indefinitely.

Limerick female prison: the CPT found women having to sleep two to a bed because of chronic overcrowding. They also found blocked showers and flooding in cells (42)

Mountjoy prison: the persistent problems of overcrowding in chronic conditions were reinforced by the CPT, who found the prison in an overall poor state of repair (45). The criteria for placement at Mountjoy for those prisoners not deemed vulnerable was “available space, or even floor space”.

St. Patrick’s Institution: The CPT was concerned at the length of time prisoners were spending in their cells and the high number of prisoners not engaged in any meaningful activity (52)

http://irishcriminologyresearchnetwork.wordpress.com/2011...

Photo: Irish Prison Services

05/07/2011

Prisons of shame: Brendan Lillis, Ireland

Brendan Lillis – A Humanitarian Issue

“Trying To Save Brendan’s Life”

Brendan Lillis, a 59 year old prisoner from West Belfast is currently desperately ill in the medical wing of the notorious Maghaberry prison in County Antrim. He suffers from the intensely painful and progressive disease called Ankylosing Spondylitis which due to other medical complications has seen him unable to move from his bed for 14 months and his weight has dropped to a perilous 6 stones (38.1 Kilos !). Due to a series of serious infections and medication which has compromised his immune system, Mr Lillis has been unable to eat, sleep or hold down even liquids for a period close to a month and is constant agony. In short, his health has deteriorated to such an extent that his partner Roisin, who is his only contact with the outside world, fears that he will die in his prison bed!

Mr Lillis was an Irish Republican political prisoner who had been released on license but unfortunately was arrested for an attempted robbery over a year ago. Despite being judged unfit to stand trial due to his desperate medical condition, Mr Lillis is still being held in Maghaberry prison ‘on license’ due to his previous conviction for political charges and is in a Catch 22 situation where he can be held indefinitely at the ‘pleasure’ of the British ‘Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Mr Owen Patterson, M.P. With the ‘Secretary of State’ having the power to release Mr Lillis, only public pressure will convince him to allow this prisoner out of prison to receive the medical treatment he so badly needs and to spend his remaining days with his family in a non-prison environment.

Mr Lillis’ case is a purely humanitarian issue but it is complicated by his political antecedents. Ankylosing Spondylitis, the condition that Mr Lillis suffers from is an intensely painful condition that begins with a curvature of the spine and it has now got to the stage where he is in extreme pain 24 hours a day with little relief and sub-standard medical care. The Maghaberry prison ‘hospital’ is little more than a ‘sick-bay’ which is guarded by Unionist prison warders who would be antagonistic to Mr Lillis due to his Irish Republican past.

Roisin, Mr Lillis’ partner, is understandably beside herself with anxiety and is desperately looking for help with her fledgling campaign to have Brendan treated with dignity:

I am trying my best to highlight this but sadly I’m working alone and don’t have much experience this area but im trying my best……For the 1st 10 weeks he had no visits because he couldn’t get into a wheelchair and they wouldn’t let me into the jail, after a lot of debates with the jail i was eventually allowed to visit him in his cell which i have done since then. as you all no Brendan is now in a precarious situation and if he doesn’t get released from jail i am in no doubts he will die soon.

Mr Lillis’ case should be a concern for everyone on humanitarian grounds alone and it would appear that only public pressure will make the Secretary of State notice the plight of a seriously ill 59 year old man in Maghaberry prison who is in constant pain and whose weight has plummeted to a dangerous 6 stone.

http://hubpages.com/hub/Brendan-Lillis-Irish-Prisoner-Bei...

Please sign the petition because he is now on a heart machine and needs real hospital care:
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache%3AEG...

Support:
https://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_13273450345978...

04/14/2011

Secret Torture prisons in Afghanistan... Secret Torture prisons in Belgium...

A new kind of democracy ?

Bagram and Beyond: New Revelations About Secret US Torture Prisons in Afghanistan

9.4.11

This is the fifth article in “Bagram Week” here at Andy Worthington, with seven articles in total exploring what is happening at the main US prison in Afghanistan through reports, analyses of review boards, and the voices of the prisoners themselves, and ongoing updates to the definitive annotated Bagram prisoner list.


04/11/2011

ECHR Suspends the Extradition of Arbi Zarmaev- Minister of Justice blocks

ECHR Suspends the Extradition of Arbi Zarmaev

Saturday, 9 April 2011.  
ECHR Suspends the Extradition of Arbi Zarmaev

The Pax Christi Association website has reported that the European Court of Human Rights has suspended the extradition of Arbi Zarmaev from Belgium to the Russian Federation.

According to the news, on April 5th the ECHR suspended the extradition ruling of the Belgian Ministry of Justice on Arbi Zarmaev, who is a Chechen refugee.

However, Arbi Zarmaev is still living in a darkened 2 x 3 meter isolation cell at the Bruges prison. Also, Arbi’s sister and brother have not been allowed to visit him for almost 10 days. Arbi’s right to communicate by letter or telephone was also revoked by prison administration.

Arbi was seen few days ago by his wife. The prison administration let her at her husband through a window. According to his wife, Arbi was lying motionless on the ground. Around him there were all kinds of medication and in the corners of the cell, a “white powder” seemed to be located.

*Text was written by Waynakh Online and edited by Michael Capobianco

http://www.waynakh.com/eng/2011/04/echr-suspends-the-extr... 

OUR COMMENT:

After the tortures in the prisons of Hasselt and Bruges, Arbi is now totally isolated by Belgian Justice and the direction of the prison of Bruges.
That is the best way to break him and his family.

Some years ago Russia was critisized by the European Union because the Russian government used psychiatry and psychiatric drugs to eleminate all the political opposants in Russia.

But the European Union which is preaching ‘the respect for human rights’ does just te same.

They were isolating and torturing Arbi to make him mad. In the prison of Hasselt they didn’t give him water during 4 days but they were giving him the psychiatric drug Clopixil (a neurolepticum) which is used for so called ‘difficult social contacts’ and ‘fears’ (the fear to be murdered by torture).
In the prison of Bruges they give him the psychiatric drug Zyprexa, a so called antipsychoticum that is used against ‘delusions’ such as hearing, seeing and feeling things that are not there…(solitary confinement, torture,).
Zyprexa may also cause restlessness, extreme fatigue and speech problems.
That’s why the direction of the prison of Bruges said that Arbi “mumbled incoherent things’ (in Chechen language what Belgians can not understand).

The direction of the prison of Bruges wants lo let believe now to everybody, including Arbi’s brother and sister, that Arbi is really mad. That he does not know what he says and wants no further contact.

The direction said that Arbi best can be locked up in a closed psychiatric institution, in a special institution for mentally ill.

But 10 days ago, Arbi talked with his sister and brother. His sister and brother said he was completely exhausted, but his mind was mentally in order.

Just before the meeting of the Belgian Councel of State that confirmed the extradition of Arbi to Russia which is signed some weeks ago by the minister of Belgian Justice after his contact with the Russian embassy, Arbi was totally isolated.
His sister and brother could not longer visit him.

The direction of the prison and Arbi’s lawyer who has good contacts with the direction of the prison
continuously repeated that Arbi was ‘not very well’, “mumbled incoherent things’, ‘wanted not to sign the report notes of the prison for the admission of visits’ and ‘wanted no contact anymore’.
He was only allowed to have contact with his lawyer who has good contacts with the direction of the prison.
Arbi was declared mentally ill and with the aid of the lawyer, they hoped that his family would believe it.

The direction of the prison states that:
‘everybody can visit him but that he does not want some visit’ and that they have ‘to respect his will’.
‘he can phone but that he does not want to sign a report note for permission’
‘he can write but that he does not want to sign a report note for permission’
‘he can have a television in his loft but that he does not want to sign a report note for permission’

Nobody can control what he is really saying and they can say what they want.

Five days ago an italian doctor could visit Arbi, after a lot of problems about his profession (they didn’t believe he was a doctor). Arbi wanted to see his sister and brother. But they wanted do handcuffs around his wrists. He refused it because he had a lot of pain at his wrists. By the torturous treatment, he had deep wounds at his wrists which wre heavely infected. They could not sew the wounds.

I think that the torturous treatment he was undergoing, the totally isolation, all the lies about what is happening, and the neuroleptics, they are making him really mad.

I wrote about it to the minister of justice Stefaan De Clerck (christen-democrat party) who preaches that a ‘human and righteous justice’ but he didn’t answer me.
I wrote to mister Renaal Landuyt, a ‘socialist’ member of Belgian parliament who is specialised in justice and prison matters. He didn’t answer me.
Yesterday I wrote to Bart Staes, a member of the European Parliamant (Greens). I asked him to use his european mandate to visit Arbi in prison. I am waiting his reply.
I wrote to Pax Christi, a association that’s also working about human rights.
I contacted the Directorate General of the Belgian prisons in Brussels ( a few steps away of the Cabinet of Minister of justice Stefaan De Clerck). They promised me ‘to investigate the case’ but the only result of their ‘investigation’ is that the dramatic situation remains unchanged.

In the prison of Hasselt a Chechen without legs was locked up for 4 months.
In the prison of Bruges there is still detained a Chechen without legs.

In 2005 there were serious problems with some Kurds who where tortured on an unimaginable way in the prison of Bruges.
In 2008 the UN-Comittee Against Torture condamned Belgium for its torture practices in prisons.
Belgium was also criticized on a European level. But nothing changes and even the Belgian Prison Act of 2004 that provided for inspection, is not applied.